Deleuze’s Transcendental Empiricism and Iqbal’s Philosophy of Khudi: An Analysis of Our Lady of Alice Bhatti
The decline of religion and the rise of secularism have led modern humans to adopt a materialistic perspective, resulting in a society marked by alienation, distrust, confusion, and anxiety. However, this narrow approach fails to capture the full richness of human experience, encompassing physical and spiritual dimensions. Literary studies have historically focused on uncovering hidden meanings and truths. However, an essential aspect of modern thought is the division between real and ideal, reason and judgment, and Spirit or Mind. To better understand the evolution of the self and human experience, French theorist Gilles Deleuze's concept of transcendental empiricism and South Asian Muslim philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal's philosophy of Khudi offer valuable insights. Examining Muhammad Hanif's novel Our Lady of Alice Bhatti (2011) through the lens of Deleuze's theory of desire and desiring-production, as well as Iqbal's philosophy of Khudi, can shed light on the role of desire in shaping the characters, classes, and interest within the novel.
Moreover, the research explores how ego-sustaining acts and an attitude of faith among the novel's characters can help individuals achieve a sense of dignity and self-respect, regardless of race or ethnicity. This study aims to promote a more holistic understanding of the human experience by sparking scholarly debates on creating a balanced and dignified lifestyle.
Keywords: self, ego, action, experience, Deleuze, Iqbal
Copyright (c) 2023 author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors are free to:
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
- for any purpose, even commercially.